TRAINING LOAD

Definition: An individualized measure of stress on a muscle based on sEMG. Athos training load is an internal load measure that quantifies the physiological response to imposed demands.

Calculation: Sum of muscular activation over the duration of the session.

Use

  • Training Load increases when the intensity and duration of the session increase. 
  • Training Load also increases when the physiological task at hand requires more effort. ie:) When comparing two similar sessions or movements, a higher training load can occur with fatigue while a lower training load implies adaptation and/or efficiency gains.
  • Understanding Baseline Training Load, average of the past 7 days or a game, is helpful is understanding your team and individual athlete’s response to practice.

INTENSITY

Definition: how “hard” was the session, most similar to heart rate zones for aerobic and lactate thresholds for anaerobic training.

Calculation: Training Load/Sec of a session.

Use

  • Breaking Training Load from a session is broken into low, medium and high intensity zones buckets activities of high muscle activation, such as explosive and ballistic movements, into the high zone and activities of lower muscle activation, such as warm up and corrective work, into the low zone.
  • Understanding the Intensity required to get through a game or hard practice is helpful in understanding your team’s regular response to your program and how their intensity changes with fatigue. Also, bucketing the training load into intensity zones can measure if the goal of your current programming, ie:) speed development in off-season, is being achieved by the team.

ACR (ACUTE TO CHRONIC TRAINING LOAD RATIO)

Definition: a comparison of what was done (acute load, fatigue) verses was prepared for (chronic load, fitness).

Calculation: In the example of 7:28 ACR, the average training load of your acute load (7 days) is compared to the average training load of your chronic (28 load).

Use

  • this current status of fitness vs. fatigue helps ensure that our day to day is progressing in the safe zone between under or over training. Athos uses recommend ranges of 0.8-1.2 for the sweet spot, but you may find your team has different bounds based on their training age, etc.
  • Less than (<) .80 = under training has higher potential injury risk due to reduced development. Hitting with low acute loads may not prepare you for the demands of your sport.
  • Between 80-1.2 = the sweet spot is the optimal range associated with the lowest relative injury risk.
  • More than (>) 1.2 = overtraining is the danger zone as it has the highest relative injury risk. The recent fatigue experienced is greater than the prepared fitness base.

MOTION LOAD

Definition: Mechanical load placed on an athlete based most directly on the movement of the athlete. Motion Load is an external load measure.

Calculation: Magnitude of the changes of the tri-axial accelerometer.

Use: 

  • Understanding the relationship of motion load (external) and training load (internal) under similar training settings can paint a more clear picture on movement efficiency versus fatigue.
  • An athlete held pace for 10 x 100 meter sprints. Motion load is comparable across the sets but if the training load increases across the sets we know that the body is working harder, eliciting more response from the muscle, for a similar output.

MUSCULAR IMBALANCES

Definition: Left to right training load difference across a single muscle group.

Calculation: Percent difference between left and right muscle group, where left is the reference side. A positive imbalance has more training load on the left, a negative imbalance has more training load on the right.

Use: 

  • Slight strength and side biases are expected in athletes, especially based on sport and position. 
  • But severe muscular imbalances are associated with higher relative injury risk and reduced performance. 
  • Understanding the muscle group and the direction of the imbalance helps us identify where the internal training load is coming from. 
  • Think about injury history, current pain, and position to understand why an imbalance is occurring and identify if the imbalance is exaggerated in particular movements and getting better or worse over time.

CONTRIBUTIONS

Definition: the breakdown of training load into respective muscle groups.  

Calculation: the percent of training load accrued by a muscle group throughout a session. ex: (training load of the left + right glute) / total training load

Use: 

  • Contributions and their relationship to one another ensure that muscular stress is distributed properly. 
  • Understanding the muscle group that output the most training load helps us identify muscle groups that may be overworking and gives a snapshot of the athlete’s biomechanical pattern. 
  • Think about injury history, current pain, posture, position, and programming goals to understand why a muscle group has high or low distribution and identify if the pattern is exaggerated in particular movements and getting better or worse over time.
  • Athos recommends maintaining glute contribution >20%

ANTERIOR TO POSTERIOR (A:P)

Definition:  the training load ratio comparing anterior, inner and outer quads to posterior, hamstrings and glutes muscle groups.  

Calculation: the sum of inner and outer quad training load divided by the sum of hamstring and glute training load. A value greater than(>) 1.0 is more anterior dominant while less than(<) 1.0 is more posterior dominant.  
(training load inner + outer quads) / (training load hamstrings + glutes)

Use

  • Understanding the training load distribution of muscles the assist in hip and knee movement helps us identify movement pattern behavior and muscle groups that may be over or under working. 
  • Think about injury history, current pain, posture, position, and programming goals to understand why muscular stress is favoring the front or back-side of the body and identify if the pattern is exaggerated in particular movements and getting better or worse over time.
  • Athos recommends maintaining A:P < 1.10

QUAD TO HAMSTRING (Q:H)

Definition:  the training load ratio comparing the outer quad and hamstring muscle groups.  

Calculation: the outer quad training load divided by the hamstring training load. A value greater than(>) 1.0 is more outer quad dominant while less than(<) 1.0 is more hamstring dominant.  
(training load outer quads) / (training load hamstrings)

Use: 

  • Understanding the training load distribution of muscles that assist in knee flexion and extension helps us identify movement pattern behavior and muscle groups that may be over or under working. 
  • Think about injury history, current pain, posture, position, and programming goals to understand the muscular stress distribution and identify if the pattern is exaggerated in particular movements and getting better or worse over time.
  • Athos recommends maintaining Q:H = 1.0-1.6

GLUTE TO HAMSTRING (G:H)

Definition:  the training load ratio comparing the glute and hamstring muscle groups.  

Calculation: the glute training load divide by the hamstring training load. A value greater than(>) 1.0 is more glute dominant while less than(<) 1.0 is more hamstring dominant.  
(training load glutes) / (training load hamstrings)

Use:

  • Understanding the training load distribution of muscles that assist in hip extension helps us identify movement pattern behavior and muscle groups that may be over or under working. 
  • Think about injury history, current pain, posture, position, and programming goals to understand the muscular stress distribution and identify if the pattern is exaggerated in particular movements and getting better or worse over time. 
  • Athos recommends maintaining G:H > 0.85
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